Glutamine is one of the most used amino acids in the body, being the most abundant free amino acid in the body. Glutamine is an essential amino acid that is important for the body to be able to repair cells, synthesize proteins, and improve muscle strength and function. The body cannot manufacture glutamine, so it must be obtained through the diet or supplementation.

Glutamine is a naturally occurring amino acid that is critical to the function of your body. It is produced in your liver, and plays a major role in the metabolism of nitrogen, which is important in the functioning of your brain, skeletal system, and digestive system. According to the Dietary Reference Intakes for Amino Acids, for proper nitrogen metabolism, your body requires the adequate supply of glutamine from your diet.

Glutamine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the body, and it is naturally found in some proteins in small amounts. Glutamine has been shown to aid in muscle growth, and it also helps the body to use the fuel it consumes. The body can also produce glutamine from the amino acid, ammonia, which is a waste product of protein metabolism.

What exactly is glutamine?

Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the human body, accounting for about 60% of the amino acid pool in skeletal muscle. (See All About BCAAs and All About Proteins for additional information on amino acids.)

Glutamine is a conditionally necessary amino acid, which means our bodies don’t need it in our diets on a regular basis. Exogenous glutamine (glutamine supplemented or consumed with food) is only required in certain situations. Stress, injury, muscular dystrophy, and illness, for example, may decrease glutamine levels by up to 50%. (in severe cases). Because glutamine is a precursor to the structural unit of DNA and RNA, it is often deficient in rapidly proliferating cells.

Our bodies generate enough glutamine to satisfy our requirements when we are not stressed, wounded, muscle weak, or unwell. Skeletal muscle produces the majority of the glutamine generated endogenously (i.e., by the body). Vitamins B3 and B6 are required for glutamine synthesis from glutamic acid.

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L-Glutamine

What is the significance of glutamine?

Glutamine is an important fuel source for the stomach and immune system, and it aids in germ defense. It preserves the integrity of the gastrointestinal system by feeding these cells.

Because the immune system is so important for stress recovery, glutamine may assist during hard exercises. This may be a factor:

  • Normalization of growth hormones
  • Promotes the absorption of glucose after an exercise.
  • Muscle hydration is improved.
  • Physical exercise reduces acid buildup (more about acid-base balance)

Exercise, on the other hand, does not seem to decrease glutamine levels to the point where normal immune function is compromised. This seems logical, given that individuals who receive adequate energy from meals have a high glutamine consumption. Some individuals with physically demanding training and nutritional habits, such as dieters who eat less food than required to alter their body composition or those who exercise extremely intensely, may benefit from it (top athletes).

Glutamate: What You Should Know

Where can I discover

Glutamate is found in abundance in cabbage and red beets. (Rejoice, world’s Eastern European grandmothers! You now have another more incentive to persuade your underweight grandkids to consume borax, borscht, and stuffed cabbage). Fish, legumes, and dairy products are some of the other dietary options.

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Dosage and supplementation with glutamine

In general, consuming large amounts of a soluble amino acid may obstruct the absorption of other amino acids. Due to their osmotic characteristics, high dosages of certain amino acids may induce stomach bloating and diarrhea. Supplements containing glutamine, on the other hand, seem to be well absorbed and do not produce gastrointestinal issues.

People with gastrointestinal problems, as well as those with HIV/AIDS, cancer, and other severe diseases, have turned to glutamine to preserve gut health. Because glutamine has a fast turnover rate, it may be given in high doses (up to 30 grams per day) without causing adverse effects. When 20-25 grams of glutamine are administered within 24 hours, the plasma glutamine concentration in most individuals returns to normal.

The amount of glutamine supplementation used in each study varied, including:

  • Orally, 18 to 30 grams per day
  • Orally, take 10 grams three times a day.
  • Every day, 0.6 grams per kilogram of body weight (e.g. a person weighing 100 kg would consume 60 grams per day).
  • 14 grams of glutamine per day, in conjunction with arginine and HMB, for 24 weeks

Glutamate side effects and long-term usage

There is limited research on the long-term usage of glutamine supplements (more than a few weeks). With short-term usage of less than 30 grams per day, no adverse effects have been recorded. However, individuals with large doses of intravenous glutamine had increased liver enzymes in certain trials (indicating liver stress).

Other categories at risk include:

  • Because their glutamine metabolism is compromised, diabetics should utilize glutamine supplements with care.
  • Because of the interconversion of glutamate, glutamine supplements should be avoided by those who are sensitive to MSG (monosodium glutamate).
  • People with epilepsy or bipolar illness should be cautious about taking glutamine and should see their doctor before doing so. Many antiepileptic medications prevent glutamate from being stimulated in the brain. Because glutamine is converted to glutamate in the body, it may interact adversely with anticonvulsants.

Conclusions and suggestions

Is glutamine supplementation beneficial to your body if you are in good health? Most likely not.

Is it dangerous in amounts under 30 grams per day? Most likely not.

Supplementing with glutamine can’t harm if your diet, exercise, and recuperation are all in line and you have monthly money to spend on supplements. Supplementing with glutamine may help with nitrogen retention, infection prevention, and recovery from sickness while you’re on a restricted diet. Glutamate may also be beneficial in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, HIV/AIDS, and cancer.

The claimed advantages of glutamine supplementation in healthy individuals have not been sufficiently established by well-controlled trials in healthy, well-nourished adults.

I reached out to Dr. Michael Gleeson, a glutamine expert at Loughborough University’s School of Sport and Exercise in England. His response was succinct and to-the-point:

Greetings, Ryan.

I don’t think glutamine supplementation is necessary for healthy athletes or coaches.

Respectfully,

Mike

supplementary appropriation

Glutamine is an arginine precursor.

When coupled with 12 weeks of resistance exercise, a glutamine supplement mix has been proven to decrease body fat and improve muscle growth and strength.

For you, individually.

References

To view the sources of information used in this article, go here.

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J Korean Med Sci 2002;17:778-783. Choi SH et al. Effect of glutamine on the luminal microbial ecology after large small intestine resection.

Diabetes Nutr Metab 2000;13:25-30. Darmon D. The function of glutamine deficiency in severe illness.

Goodman M.J., et al. Abnormalities of the apparently normal intestinal mucosa in Crohn’s disease. Lancet 1976;7:275-278. Bertolo RF & Burrin DG. Comparative aspects of tissue metabolism of glutamine and proline. J Nutr 2008;138:2032S-2039S.

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Glutamine and carbohydrate supplements decrease the rise in ammonia during endurance exercise in the field, according to Carvalho-Peixoto et al. 2007;32:1186-1190 in Appl Physiol Nutr Metab.

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Glutamine synthetase isozymes, oligomers, and subunits from Beta Vulgaris L. var. lutea hair roots. Mack G. Planta 205:113-20, 1998.

M. DiPasquale, M. DiPasquale, M. DiPasquale, M. DiPasquale, M. DiPasquale, M. DiPasquale, M Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press, 1997.

Lohaus G. & Moellers C. Floem amino acid transport in two genotypes of Brassica napus L. and one genotype of B. carinata in dependence on seed protein content. Planta 2000;211:833-840.

TR Ziegler, et al. The gastrointestinal tract and glutamine 355-362 in Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2000. G. Ochs, G. Ochs, G. Ochs, G. Ochs, G. Ochs, G. Ochs, G. Ochs, G. Ochs, G. Ochs, G. Ochs, G. Ochs, G. Ochs, G. O Plant Mol Biol 39:395-405, 1999.

Labow BI & Souba WW. Glutamine. World J Surg 2000;24:1503-1513.

M. Gleason, M. Gleason, M. Gleason, M. Gleason, M. Gleason, M. Gleason, M. Gleason, 138:2045S-2049S. J Nutr 2008;138:2045S-2049S.

A guide on the interaction of medicines and plants with vitamins, Lininger SW, et al. Rocklin, California: Prima Health, 2000. Krause’s food, nutrition, and diet treatment. Mahan K, Escott-Stump S. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 2004.

Effect of glutamine supplementation on glucose homeostasis during and after exercise. Iwashita S, et al. 2005;99:1858-1865 in J Appl Physiol.

Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: novel approaches to intestinal motility pharmacology, Scarpignato S, Pelosini I. Can J Gastroenterol, vol. 13, no. A, pp. 50A-65A, 1999.

M.A. Medina, M.A. Medina, M.A. Medina, M.A. Medina, M.A. Medina, M.A. Medina, M.A. Medina, M.A. Medina, M

G. Mithier, G. Mithier, G. Mithier, G. Mithier, G. Mithier, G. Mithier, G. Mithier, G. Mithier, G. Mit 267-271 in Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care, 2001.

CM Noyer et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of glutamine treatment for AIDS patients with intestinal permeability problems. 93:972-975. Am J Gastroenterol, 1998.

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Glutamine is a type of amino acid that influences many bodily functions, including muscle growth and recovery. Glutamine is primarily known for its role as a fuel or energy source, but it also plays a vital role in protein synthesis and metabolism.. Read more about glutamine and cancer and let us know what you think.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the benefits of glutamine?

Glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that is found in many foods. It is used to synthesize proteins, and it has been shown to have some benefits for the immune system, muscle growth, and brain function.

Who should not take glutamine?

People who are allergic to glutamine should not take it.

What are the negative effects of glutamine?

The negative effects of glutamine are its side effects, which include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite and muscle cramps.

This article broadly covered the following related topics:

  • glutamine foods
  • glutamine dosage
  • when to take glutamine
  • glutamine bodybuilding
  • all about glutamine
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